Since the 1980’s we have lived in a Post-modern era, and the end of Meta-narratives (Lyotard, 1979), a narrative that is self-refuting (Rorty). Such is the Human Condition when language, identity and knowledge are blurred to no end, in which we are left with doubt and skepticism; somewhat similar to the era preceding Jasper’s Axial Age (). While this might be discouraging, for some it is a condition that will lead to higher levels of consciousness (Bohm), and conscious raising (Freire).
Still, the condition is problematic, especially for countries within ASEAN who are in the midst of forming a precarious alliance based on Democracy and speaking English, characteristics none of the member states possess in abundance. Problematic because Democracy and speaking a second language are transformative endeavors that are not easily attained.